- Other Names: 石敢當 (sekkantou), 石散當 (sekisantou)
- Japanese: 石敢當 (ishigantou)
Ishigantô are stones erected at intersections and inscribed with the characters 「石・敢・當」 (ishi, gan, tô) as a charm against evil spirits. The practice started in China, and spread to Japan via Ryûkyû; today, ishigantô can be found as far north as Aomori prefecture, though they are by far the most numerous in Okinawa and Kagoshima prefectures.
- "Ishigantô." Sekai daihyakka jiten 世界大百科事典. Hitachi Solutions, 2012.
- Or, occasionally, variations such as 石敢堂, 石当散, 石散当 or 石将軍, the latter being especially common in Fukushima prefecture, and in China.