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Convention of Kanagawa

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  • Signed: 1854/3/3 (March 31)
  • Japanese: 日米和親条約 (Nichibei washin jôyaku)

The Convention of Kanagawa was the first official treaty agreement signed between the United States and the Tokugawa shogunate. Consisting of 12 articles, it was signed by Commodore Matthew Perry and shogunate officials Hayashi Fukusai, Ido Satohiro, Isawa Masayoshi, and Udono Nagatoshi at a reception hall in Yokohama on 1854/3/3 (March 31).

The treaty opened the ports of Hakodate and Shimoda to American ships, obligated the Japanese authorities to provide provisions for American ships and good treatment for shipwrecked sailors throughout Japan, and arranged for the establishment of formal relations in the Western mode, with an American consul to be sent to Japan soon afterwards.

Following the signing of the Convention, Hayashi Fukusai headed negotiations with Perry as to the fine details of arrangements for the American presence in Shimoda and Hakodate going forward, including the extent of the geographical area within which Americans could move freely; the establishment of checkpoints around the port-towns to control movement beyond that area; the designation of particular temples for American use, including for use as a foreigners' burial grounds; and the reception of American ships at these two ports in future.

References

  • Ishin Shiryô Kôyô 維新史料綱要, vol 1 (1937), 568, 599-603.
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